Peptides are used as so-called “protein hydrolysates” in sports, baby and senior nutrition because they can be synthesized faster and more completely than protein to endogenous proteins and promote muscle and cell development or growth and renewal of body cells.
Peptides are molecules that consist of compounds from two to 50 amino acids, while molecules with more than 50 amino acids are called proteins.
Peptides can be generated synthetically or by hydrolysis, ie by targeted enzymatic pre-digestion from proteins. In the hydrolysis, the large amino acid molecules of the proteins are selectively decomposed by selected enzymes in more or less expensive processes in reactors (fermenters) to smaller amino acid compounds, ie peptides.
For a long time, the outstanding bioavailability, ie the usefulness of the peptides as “building material” for the formation of endogenous proteins (muscles, immune proteins, blood protein, enzymes, etc.), was the main advantage of these short-chain molecules. In recent years, however, it has been scientifically proven that special bioactive peptides not only provide building material (nitrogen, nitrogen) for the body’s cells but that they also have bodily functions such as protein, carbohydrate and fat metabolism, the immune system, mental health -mental functions and modulate the enzyme activity in the organism.
Peptides – Anabolic Functions
Clinical studies have shown that in normal diets the addition of 1g of various short-chain peptides per day significantly improves muscle and strength gains. Since this small amount of 1 g peptides provides only a negligible amount of nitrogen compared to the 100-200 g protein contained in normal diet per day, the anabolic effect of the peptides can not be attributed solely to the mere provision of muscle-building material. This finding is also confirmed by the fact that different peptides from different sources of the protein at the same 1 g / day dose deliver similar small amounts of nitrogen or muscle building material but still showed different strong anabolic effects.
Also surprising was the fact that short-chain peptides from blood protein, casein protein, and whey protein similar anabolic effects such as the muscle-building classic ” creatine monohydrate ” (slower onset and recognizable only in the time spectrum of some months) showed, while the same peptides from plant and Also fish protein were not quite as effective. However, since the biological value of Whey protein is higher than that of casein protein and especially well above that of blood protein and thus provides more nitrogen per gram, the roughly similar anabolic functionality of the peptides must be primarily targeted to specific peptide formations and secondarily to the peptides Nitrogen delivery be attributed.
Peptides – lipid metabolism-active functions
Sensationally surprising were the research results, which, also at a low 1g amount of peptide per day, showed a very clear modulation of fat and carbohydrate metabolism.
The fact that an extremely high proportion of proteins of at least 40% in the diet has a positive effect on satiety and a 20-30% increase in thermogenesis (calorie burning) in diets for body fat reduction or restricts the build-up of body fat was already established many years ago Service. However, in the more recent in vitro and human studies on globulin peptide D, it has been clearly demonstrated that 1g of this peptide per day is enough to lower blood triglyceride levels by 35% and not to store the fatty acids as body fat, but via To burn ATP (adenosine triphosphate) in the Cancer Circle.
In vitro studies on the same peptide as well as the soy protein-peptide S have even shown that not only the fatty acids but also the carbohydrates from food are increasingly being introduced into the energy cycle. Through these functional properties, the body fat structure is throttled and at the same time via ATP the energy supply, the physical/mental performance or muscle building processes improved (see the section on anabolic functions).
In fat metabolism modulation, the short-chain peptides from animal proteins in male representatives of different species were more superior to vegetable protein peptides than to female ones.
Surprising was the fact that short-chain peptides from fish protein, while the fat metabolism most strongly heated, but was least conducive to the development of muscle mass. In particular, short-chain globulin peptides have been extensively studied in Japanese studies, and even received the official FOSHU status “triglyceride-lowering functionality” from the Ministry of Health.
Peptides – Immunomodulatory functions
Since endogenous (endogenous) immune proteins have to be formed from dietary protein, all proteins or their peptides and amino acids are important for a good immune system. In the US, where Whey Isolate (whey protein isolate) has specialized in recent years, it has been shown that these over 90% proteins, if they have a certain degree of denaturation, are particularly immunogenic. Many other studies have now shown that almost all hydrolyzed to short-chain proteins (and thus targeted denatured) proteins are immuno-activating. Whey protein and wheat protein hydrolysates, however, have proven to be particularly bioactive with regard to the immune system.
Peptides – Mental functions
The fact that dextrose and/or caffeine increases the ability to concentrate, but that this effect only lasts for a short time due to insulin secretion and the subsequent falling blood sugar level, is well known. The amino acids tyrosine, phenylalanine and, as has recently been found, especially a mix of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) with high levels of L leucine, result in a much more pleasant and prolonged mental performance enhancement. The performance-enhancing effect is very significant, and it is already using it, above all in the US, as a service provider of the economy and the army, students, and competitive athletes, whose success depends heavily on mental or psychophysical performance.
Especially in martial arts (especially boxing), in tennis, football, and all technical sports, but also in endurance sports, supplementation with a mixture of amino acids is definitely recommended.
On the other hand, Tryptophan and GABA are especially popular for mental balance or stress resistance and good sleep. Particularly effective is a mixture of the free amino acid L tryptophan with the bioactive whey protein hydrolyzate peptide NA6, which contains short-chain tryptophan peptides.
Peptides – Example studies:
1. In a clinical study at the Higashi-Hankyu Bldg. The clinic, Osaka, Japan, the subjects fed normally, all foods were allowed, and normal habits were maintained. The peptide groups received 600 and alternatively 1200 mg of a short-chain globulin peptide per day in 300- or alternatively 600 mg doses at the two main meals a day. The placebo group received ineffective capsules of the same appearance. After 3 months, the groups with the peptides had lost on average 7% and 10% of their body fat, respectively, while the non-peptide groups retained their body fat.