The Trend of Research Peptides
Peptides are naturally existing biological molecules made of short chains of amino acids (fifty or less than fifty) which supply the body with that extra amount of necessary proteins which would to in body building and developing muscles. Research peptides are also widely used in molecular biological research and experiments. Peptides can be naturally occurring and can be included in our regular diet like leucine peptides or can be prepared synthetically as drugs in a laboratory like IGF-1 LR3.“Peptide” comes from a Greek word, meaning “digested” or “to digest”. These chemical compounds are polymers of the monomer amino acids, which are linked by bonds which themselves are called peptide bond, deriving their name from the compound they help in forming. These peptide bonds are covalent chemical bonds formed by the reaction of amine group of one amino acid and carboxyl group of another. Peptides are classified as dipeptide, tri-peptide, and tetra-peptides and so on, depending on the number of amino acid monomers involved in their structure.
Peptides can be distinguished from proteins only on the basis of their size. Peptides are those polymers of amino acids which contain fifty or less amino acids in their structure, while proteins exceed the number and contain numerous polypeptides.
There are various classes of research peptides, which are determined by the conditions under which they are produced. Milk peptides are produced from the protein, casein’s break down, which is found in milk, either by digestive enzymes during digestion or by lactobacilli during fermentation of milk. Ribosomal peptides are formed by the translation of mRNA, which are often subjected to a process called proteolysis in order to generate them in their mature form. These ribosomal peptides functions as hormones in higher order organism and some organisms produce them as antibiotics, for instance, microcins. Non ribosomal peptides are synthesised by enzymes which are more specific to each peptides instead of ribosomes. Glutathione is the most commonly found non ribosomal peptides which are used by most anaerobic organisms to create antioxidant defences. These peptides are often found to be cyclic with extremely complex structures, although linear structures are also found. Peptone class of research peptides are obtained from animal milk and meat, which are broken down by the help of proteolysis. Peptones are used for growing bacteria and fungi in nutrient media. Fragments of peptides are broken parts of proteins, utilized in identification of the source protein.
Research peptides have received a huge eminence in molecular biology for numerous reasons. Peptides can allow creation of peptide antibodies which can work without the need to purify the protein under lime light in an animal’s body. Another incentive to peptides becoming helpful in molecular biology is that, that they help to identify proteins under study in mass spectroscopy based on peptide sequences and masses. They have also been used recently to study protein functions and structure. Inhibitory peptides are being researched to help fight prostate cancer and we might soon have an answer.